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Soils of Australia

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From the ancient land surfaces of the Australian continent, with their long history of weathering and leaching, have developed many of the present Australian soils. The task of classifying and mapping these soils under a consistent scheme has resulted in the most accurate soil maps of the continent yet published.

This film traces the history of land use in Australia, leading on to the need for soil surveys and accurate maps. The structure, nutrient status and current use of 12 soil groups - as well as their relationship to the climatic zones - are discussed.

Produced in 1968.

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09:58:39 | Title
09:58:53 | Roadside, WA, Great Eastern Highway, car driven into distance
09:59:08 | Low scrub on sand plain, sparse grasses in sandy arid soil
09:59:56 | Rocky hillside blocks of laterite in foreground, grass with treesin background
09:59:59 | Researcher gets out of Land Rover, climbs up slope, to top of hardband of rock at top of mesa
10:01:00 | Aborigine spearing emu, dragging it away
10:01:02 | Aborigines sitting at camp fire in stony area of arid landscape
10:01:30 | Stills - First landing of Europeans at Port Jackson, B/W illustrations,early ships in Port Jackson, early settlement buildings, rural scenes,clearing land, sowing crops, early agriculture
10:02:13 | Sheep grazing on pasture
10:02:22 | Peanuts being harvested in arid land
10:02:28 | Sugar cane field
10:02:31 | Field of wheat
10:02:35 | Pineapple plantation
10:02:37 | Pine plantation on hills
10:02:39 | Citrus orchard
10:02:42 | Cow grazing
10:02:45 | Beef cattle on dry range land
10:02:49 | Water catchment and dam
10:02:57 | Eroded landscape
10:03:09 | Still - B/W Horse, jinker and men on a soldier settlement in 1920'snear Renmark and Chaffer,
10:03:21 | Stills - 1920's B/W citrus orchard, clay waterlogged remainsof orchard, Horse, cart and men
10:03:45 | Mr. J.K. Taylor in Renmark vineyard talking about the First soilsurvey in Renmark in 1927
10:04:52 | Air photo being used for soil survey in field
10:05:21 | Taking soil samples with soil auger, Analysis of samples in field
10:05:48 | Mechanical corer in operation, yellow earth core raised, core cutinto sections and bagged for later lab analysis
10:07:06 | Interior cartographic office, field data used to prepare soil maps,stereo air photos used to mark out soil boundaries
10:07:24 | Marked up air photo put in large projector, soil boundaries tracedoff, stripping films prepared
10:08:06 | Various soil maps used to prepare final map
10:08:26 | Interview - Dr. E.G. Hallsworth, CSIRO Chief Division of Soils,with map of Australia to discuss soil types
10:09:50 | Graphics Map of Australia showing climatic zones and soil types- alpine and sub alpine zones
10:10:12 | Land Rover in alpine area on snow covered road, soil in roadsidecutting at Dainers Gap,NSW
110:0:57 | Soil profile, showing horizons
10:11:38 | Snow covered hills landscape, sparse plants in snow
10:12:01 | Excavation showing peat layers, alpine plants in snow, snow grasses
10:12:53 | Snow gums, charred trees, new tree growth in snow
10:13:23 | Kosciusko State Park Visitor Centre, chalet in snow, skiers on skilift
10:13:34 | Hydroelectric power station in snowclad hills
10:13:46 | Graphics - map of Australia showing climate zones and soil types- humid zone, kraznozems
10:14:03 | Roadside cutting kraznozems, deep red clay soils, CU soil layers,weathering rock in lower layer
10:15:09 | Researcher chipping at red soil
10:15:28 | Forested hills in Queensland, cleared areas used for crops and dairycattle grazing on pasture
10:15:50 | Farmhouse, surrounding farm, pasture, tree landscape in background,Glass House Mountains in distance
10:16:00 | Queensland - pineapple plantation, Hoop pine plantation, maize crop,peanut crop
10:16:27 | Harvesting peanuts with harvester, peanut plant on ground
10:16:35 | Phosphate fertiliser applied to field
10:16:48 | Graphics - map of Australia - distribution of podzols
10:16:59 | Road in sandy old dune area, roadside cutting, researcher examiningsoil profile, heath and scrub on top of cutting CU soil layers, layersin cliff beside river
10:18:15 | Banksias, with flowers, heath areas
10:18:29 | Cows in pasture
10:18:40 | Graphics map of Australia - seasonally humid zone and red brownearths
10:18:58 | Soil profile side of dug trench, CU soil layers
10:19:42 | Cultivated wheat field, green showing
10:19:55 | Cattle grazing on green pasture in northern Victoria
10:20:02 | Irrigated channels and stonefruit orchard
10:20:18 | Waterlogged orchard
10:20:31 | Graphics - map of Australia - distribution of solodized solonetzand solodic soils
10:20:39 | Researcher examining soil in cutting, texture difference betweenA and B horizons
10:22:01 | Lightly treed grassy area, cattle grazing between trees
10:22:32 | Profile of solodized solonetz soils showing layers, columnar B horizon,researcher examining layers and columns
10:23:09 | Eroded landscape, sandy cap above columnar layer
10:23:28 | Graphics - map of Australia, black earth distribution
10:23:41 | Cultivated field of black earth
10:23:57 | Eroded field, profile of side of valley, researcher examining layers,carbonate nodules in bottom layer
10:24:53 | Crops grown in black earth - sorghum, maize cotton field
10:25:16 | Dry cracked black earth in field with gilgai
10:25:25 | Man measuring height of gilgai, field with several gilgai
10:25:56 | Roadcutting in gilgai area showing lighter carbonate nodules withridges rising to surface
10:26:08 | Graphics - map of Australia, distribution of grey brown and redclays
10:26:27 | Road cutting, researcher examining clay soils, texture and profilehorizons
10:27:52 | Gilgais and closed depressions in undulating fields
10:28:01 | Sheep grazing on native pastures in gilgai country
10:28:09 | Cultivated gilgai area with gentle undulations and small green patchesof growth
10:28:27 | Graphics - map of Australia distribution of red earths
10:28:37 | Roadside cutting showing profile of red earth, sandy loam in A1horizon, down through earthy soil of B horizon to mottled clays
10:29:46 | Large lumps of red earth, broken to show friability
10:30:02 | Grasses and forest trees - grassy woodlands
10:30:11 | Farm in red earth area, form house surrounded by fields, pineapplecrop, citrus orchard
10:30:28 | Graphics map of Australia, yellow earth distribution
10:30:38 | Researcher examining profile of hole dug in yellow earth
10:31:07 | Dried twigs on dry soil, ants swarming
10:31:15 | Open timbered grassland, beef cattle grazing
10:31:30 | Graphics - map Australia, distribution of lateitic podzolic soils and laterites
10:31:41 | Cliff face, red soil layers above pale grey kaolinite layers
10:31:59 | Researcher examining the layers, profile shows texture contrast between horizons
10:32:36 | Forest, some bracken
10:32:48 | Red soil, sparse grasses, pine plantation
10:33:03 | Green pasture, sheep grazing
10:33:16 | Graphics - map Aust. areas with desert sandhills
10:33:33 | Arid landscape, desert sandhills, red sand, sparse scrub and spinefex, men climbing dune, bare dune crest with wind ripples
10:34:22 | Profile of hole dug in desert sandhill; even, sandy texture
10:34:40 | Aerial - desert sandhills in parallel ridges, Simpson desert
10:35:00 | Graphics - map Aust. distribution desert loams
10:35:09 | Stoney surface, reddish,some paler patches of gilgais with low shrubs
10:35:44 | Arid hills and valleys, exposed soil profile, very sparse vegetation
10:36:01 | Horsemen moving cattle over arid land, some grasses, sparse shrubs, erosion, distant trees
10:36:15 | Graphics - soil map of Australia
10:36:41 | Int - Dr. E. G. Hallsworth
10:38:00 | End