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The Biological Control of Insects

Spraying insect pests with insecticides is not the only way to control them.

This film shows a number of pests in close-up in the laboratory - the Cottony Cushion Scale, the Cabbage Moth, the Cabbage White Butterfly, the Green Vegetable Bug, and the Vegetable Weevil. After outlining the success with which they have been controlled by their natural enemies, the film explores the entomologist''s search for a wasp to control the Queensland Fruit Fly.

An example of the use of virus diseases as another biological control measure is also shown.

Produced in 1960.

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15:15:54:16 | Laboratory. Suspension of virus particles of a granulosis virusin test-tube. Small amount pipetted into water, leaf dipped in suspension.
15:27:23 | Caterpillar eating leaf
15:27:58 | Title over insects
15:28:16 | Title card
15:28:19 | Host: Cottony cushion scale: Icerya purchasi. Predator: Rodiolia koebelei
15:28:27 | CU Scale insect on twig
15:28:39 | Ladybirds, Rediolia on scale infested twig, CU ladybird on scale,larvae eating scale insect
15:29:24 | Host: Cabbage moth, Plutella maculipennis. Parasites: Primary -Hymenobosmina rapi; Horogenes cerophaga; Thyraeell collaris; Secondary- Eupteromalus sp.
15:29:33 | Cabbage moth
15:29:36 | Researcher shows eggs of cabbage moth and caterpillars
15:29:41 | Caterpillars feeding on cabbage leaf
15:29:45 | Caterpillar spins cocoon, enclosed, moth emerges from cocoon, CUpart of moth
15:30:26 | Hymenobosmina wasp attacks caterpillar
15:30:47 | Horogenes on leaf, injects egg into caterpillar with ovipositor
15:31:15 | Microscopic dissection of host
15:31:18 | Microscopic view - host with Horogenes egg, host cocoon taken fromparasite
15:31:36 | Parasite cocoon, empty skin of host in one end, adult insect emergesfrom cocoon
15:31:58 | Thyraeella with host pupa, female injects egg into pupa
15:32:44 | Adult Thyraeella emerges from host cocoon
15:32:48 | Information card - pointing to secondary parasite
15:33:13 | Eupteromalus ovipositing in primary parasite in cocoon of cabbagemoth
15:33:30 | Adult Eupteromalus emerging from cocoon
15:33:35 | Cabbage moth cocoons on leaf, emergence of moth, primary parasiteand secondary parasite. Card - Host: Green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula.Parasite: Microphanurus basalis
15:34:05 | ECU eggs on underside of leaves CU bug laying eggs ECU bug layingeggs
315:4:00 | CU Green vegetable bug, tomato plants in pots, eggs on tomato plantleaves
15:34:28 | CU developing eggs, changed colour, two infertile pale eggs
15:34:35 | Nymphs hatch and moult, groups of young nymphs, CU older nymphsECU older nymph, adult green vegetable bug
15:35:00 | Microphanurus on green vegetable bug eggs, examines each egg withantennae, oviposits in an egg, marks egg
15:35:52 | Microscopist dissecting out parasite from egg, late pupal stage
15:36:12 | Males on egg mass, compete, winner fertilises female as she emerges,female on new egg mass
15:37:11 | Card - Host: cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. Parasites: Apanteles glomeratus;Pteromalus puparum
15:37:19 | Cabbage white butterfly emerging, sits on twig, on leaf, youngcaterpillar
15:37:38 | Apanteles deposits many eggs in caterpillar
15:37:55 | Dissection under microscope, microscopic view - eggs of parasite,dissection of host showing young larvae living together in host
15:38:14 | Caterpillar, parasite larvae emerge through its body wall, eachspins a cocoon, adult emerges from cocoon
15:39:14 | Apanteles on remains of host
15:39:23 | Pteromalus on caterpillar, caterpillar spins belt, parasite waiting
15:40:01 | Parasites on cocoon, two females deposit eggs
15:40:17 | Dissected cocoon with full grown parasite larvae, adults emergethrough hole in cocoon
15:40:53 | Card - Host: Vegetable weevil ,Listroderes obliquus. Parasite: Tersilochusspp.
15:41:02 | Researcher outside glasshouse with tube of leaves, weevils on leaves,CU feeding on leaves
15:41:18 | Females and eggs, larvae on lettuce leaf, larva eating leaf
15:41:34 | Tersilochus oviposits in vegetable weevil larva
15:41:45 | Vegetable weevil larva burrows in soil, lump of soil with earthencells with larva in each, larva pupates
15:42:14 | Parasitised cocoon opened, Tersilochus and its cocoon dissectedout
15:42:39 | Parasite adult emerges from cocoon
15:42:53 | Card - Hosts: Queensland fruit fly, Strumeta tryoni; Oriental fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis. Parasites: Opius oophilus; Opius longicaudatus
15:43:12 | Fruit fly, lays egg below surface of apple
15:43:22 | Eggs dissected from slice of fruit, put under microscope, microscopicview eggs
15:43:40 | Halved apple with fruit fly larvae CU fruit fly larvae
15:43:48 | Larvae burrowing into soil, cocoons, fly emerges
15:44:24 | CU Oriental fruit fly - flies on fruit skin
15:44:50 | Entomologists in Hawaiian orchard, CU fruit infested with larvae,parasites collected in orchard, volcanic mountain in distance
15:45:24 | Researcher at microscope with insect specimens
15:45:40 | Opius oophilus lays egg in fruit fly egg
15:46:17 | Opius longicaudatus oviposits in fruit fly larva, side view. Opius longicaudatusprobing fruit for fruit fly larvae
15:46:51 | Controlled experiment set up
15:47:00 | Queensland fruit fly depositing egg in banana
15:47:15 | Banana put in cage with Oophilus, which oviposits in fruit fly eggs
15:47:34 | Banana cleared of insects, removed, cut up, put on food medium withcarrot base, dish covered
15:48:02 | Medium examined, fruit fly have hatched, larvae feeding on medium,larvae burrow into sawdust and pupate
15:48:32 | Parasites and fruit flies emerged from pupae in cage CU Oophilus
15:48:48 | Oriental fruit fly puparia, sifted, poured into tray
15:49:02 | Opius oophilus emerging from puparia, insects collected and putin carton, anaesthetised, checked, replaced in carton, packed, deliveredto airport
515:0:03 | Consignment from Hawaii sent to quarantine, packaging burnt
15:50:44 | Anaesthetic injected into carton, all insects identified on inspectiontray, repacked in carton, packed, sent to fruit fly areas
15:51:52 | Package unloaded at airport, opened in orchard, released on loquatinfested with fruit fly, CU insects on fruit
15:52:26 | Infested fruit collected in orchard
15:52:46 | Laboratory. Fruit examined, stored in sawdust, insects removed andcounted, parasites and flies separated and noted, and preserved
15:53:41 | Presenter to camera
15:54:07 | Card - Host Cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae Disease: Granulosisvirus Bergoldia virulenta
15:54:46 | Cabbage white butterfly larvae eat leaf, become lethargic, shinyand die. Mottled body with exudate, remains disintegrate, body blackens
15:55:57 | Presenter to camera
15:56:15 | Card -Host: Greenhouse white fly Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Parasite:Encarsia formosa
15:56:23 | CU White fly on leaf lays egg, nymphs hatch, parasitised nymphsturn black
15:56:39 | Host: Woolly aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum. Parasite: Aphelinus mali
15:56:41 | Woolly aphids larvae and Aphelinus
15:56:49 | Presenter to camera
15:57:02 | Fruit fly depositing egg under surface of fruit
15:57:25 15:57:50 | Credits End